Research

Research behind the GDQ

Dr. Susan Wheelan, founder of the GDQ on group development

Dr. Susan Wheelan gives an overview of group development and a model of five phases that she has
developed to create a better understanding of the interaction within groups. Dr. Wheelan is here
interviewed by Mia Ljungblom who teaches courses in leadership and group development for the
Division for Contract Education at Uppsala University, Sweden. Length: 17:57 min.

 

Read about Susan Wheelan in The Art of Making Groups Work Effectively

Read about Susan Wheelan in Well functioning groups render A BETTER WORLD  (in Swedish). Read the article translated into English.

Wheelan, S. & Abt, V. (1990). Field theory and the construction of social problems. In Wheelan, S., Abt, V. & Pepitone, E. (Eds.). Advances in Field Theory (pp. 80-89). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Wheelan, S. & Stivers, E. (1990). Group dynamics, action research, and intergroup relations. In S. Wheelan, V. Abt, & E. Pepitone (Eds.), Advances in Field Theory (pp. 197-209). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Wheelan, S. (1991). The Empirical Measurement of Conscious and Unconscious Processes in Groups and Organizations. Paper presented at Northwestern University College of Education. Co-sponsor: Chicago Center for the Study of Groups and Organizations.

Wheelan, S. & Conway, C. (1991). Group development as a framework to understand and promote school readiness to engage in an OD project. The Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 2 (1), 59-71.

Wheelan, S. & Verdi, A. (1992). Differences in male and female patterns of communication in groups: A methodological artifact? Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. 27 (1/2), 1-15.

Verdi, A. & Wheelan, S. (1992). Developmental patterns in same-sex and mixed-sex groups. Small Group Research, 23 (3), 356-378.

Wheelan, S. & Abraham, M. (1993). The concept of intergroup mirroring: Reality or illusion? Human Relations, 46 (7), 803-825.

Wheelan, S. & Krasick, C. (1993). The emergence, transmission and acceptance of themes in a temporary organization. Group and Organization Management, 18 (2), 237-260.

Wheelan, S. & McKeage, R. (1993). Developmental patterns in small and large groups. Small Group Research. 24 (1), 60-83.

Wheelan, S. (1993). Communication and developmental processes in a system of interacting groups. Paper presented at the 43rd Annual Conference of the International Communication Association. May 30.

Wheelan, S. & Michael, T. (1993). Men and Women in Groups and Organizations: A Tavistock Approach. In Hugg, T. W., Carson, N. M., & Lipgar, R. M. (Eds.).  Changing Group Relations ( pp. 122-129). Jupiter, FL: The A. K. Institute.

Wheelan, S., Michael, T., Abraham, M., Krasick, C., McKeage, R., Verdi, A., Johnston, F. & Whiteling, V. (1993). The Group Relations Conference as a laboratory for the study of organizational and societal processes: Methods, findings, and a call for collaboration. In Cytrynbaum, S. & Lee, S. (Eds.). Transformations in Global and Organizational Systems: Changing Boundaries in the 90’s. (127- 133). Jupiter, FL: The A. K. Rice Institute.

Wheelan, S. (1993). Complex Adaptive Systems Composed of Human Agents. Paper presented at the A. K. Rice National Meeting. Marina Del Rey, CA: May.

Wheelan, S. (1994). Psychological Ecosystems: Habitats for Humanity. Paper presented at the Sixth Annual Kurt Lewin Conference. The Institute for Social Research Center for Group Dynamics. University of Michigan. Ann Arbor. September 9th.

Wheelan, S., Johnston, F., McKeage, R., & Kaeser, R. (1994). Group task, size, and subgroup formation: Some factors that influence group development. Paper presented at the Sixth Annual Kurt Lewin Conference. The Institute for Social Research, Center for Group Dynamics. University of Michigan. Ann Arbor.  September 9th.

Wheelan, S., McKeage, R., Verdi, A., Abraham, M., Krasick, C., & Johnston, F. (1994).

Communication and developmental processes in a system of interacting groups. In L. Frey (Ed.) Communication in Context: Studies of Naturalistic Groups. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, 153-180.

Wheelan, S. (1994). Responsible Team Consultation: Research Based Assessment and Consultation. Proceedings of the 1994 Organizational Development Network Conference.

Wheelan, S. & Verdi, A. (1994). Differences in male and female patterns of communication in groups: A methodological artifact? In R. F. Szafran (Ed.), Social Science Research: A Cross Section of Journal Articles for Discussion and Evaluation. Pyrczak Publishing, 83-94.

Wheelan, S., Verdi, A. F., & McKeage, R. (1994). The Group Development Observation System (HaPI Record). Pittsburgh, PA: Behavioral Measurement Database Services (Producer). McLean, VA: BRS Search Service (Vendor).

Wheelan, S. & Verdi, A. F. (1994). Two Methods for Conducting Group Assessment and Group Research: Descriptions and Applications. Paper presented at the 102nd Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association. Los Angeles, CA. August 15th.

Wheelan, S. & Hochberger, J. (1996). Validation Studies of the Group Development Questionnaire. Small Group Research, 27, 1, 143-170.

Wheelan, S, & Hochberger, J. (1996). Assessing Rehabilitation Teams Functional Level and Facilitating Team Development. Rehabilitation Nursing, 21, 2, 75-81.

Wheelan, S. & Johnston, F. (1996) The Role of Member Leaders in a System Containing Formal Leaders. Small Group Research, 27, 1, 33-55.

Wheelan, S., Tillin, F., & Sanford, J. (1996). School Group Effectiveness and Productivity. Research Practice, 4, 1, 11-14. The Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement. College of Education. The University of Minnesota.

Wheelan, S., Yantorno, R. E., Tilin, F. & Lisk, A. R. (1996). Engineering Education and Team Work. Paper presented at the American Society for Engineering Education. Middle Atlantic Section Reginal Conference. April 27, 1996.

Wheelan, S. (Ed.). (1996). New Frontiers in Group and Organizational Dynamics. A Special Issue of Systems Practice, 9 (1).

Wheelan, S. (1996). An Initial Exploration of the Relevance of Complexity Theory to Group Research and Practice. Systems Practice, 9 (1), 47-70.

Wheelan, S. (1996). New Frontiers in Group and Organizational Dynamics: An Introduction. Systems Practice, 9 (1), 5-6.

Wheelan, S. (1996). Effects of Gender Composition and Group Status Differences on Member Perceptions of Group Developmental Patterns, Effectiveness, and Productivity. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 34, 9/10, 665-686.

Wheelan, S., Brunner, A., Burchill, C., Craig, R., & Tilin, F. (1996) The Utility of Group Development Theory in Consulting with Small, Social Service Organizations: A Case Study. Organization Development Journal, 14 (3), 4-15.

Wheelan, S. (1997). Co-therapists and the creation of a Functional Psychotherapy Group: A Group Dynamics Perspective. Group Dynamics Theory, Research, and Practice, 1(4), 306-310.

Wheelan, S. (1997). Group Development and the Practice of Group Psychotherapy.  Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1(4), 288-293.

Wheelan, S. & Kaeser, R. M. (1997). The Influence of Task Type and Designated Leaders on Developmental Patterns in Groups. Small Group Research, 28, 1, 94-121.

Wheelan, S., Buzaglo, G., Tsumura, E. (1998). Developing Assessment Tools For Cross Cultural Group Research. Small Group Research, 29(3), 359-370.

Wheelan, S., Murphy, D., Tsumura, E., & Fried Kline, S. (1998). Member Perceptions of Internal Group Dynamics and Productivity. Small Group Research, 29(3), 371-393.

Wheelan, S. & Tilin, F.(1999). The relationship between faculty group effectiveness and school productivity. Small Group Research, 30,1, 59-81.

Buzaglo, G. & Wheelan, S.(1999). Facilitating work team effectiveness: Case studies from Central America. Small Group Research, 30,1,108-129.

Wheelan, S. (1999). An introduction to the Special Issue on Group Development.  Small Group Research, 30, 1.

Wheelan, S. & Burchill, C. (1999). Take Teamwork to New Heights. Nursing Management, 28-32.

Wheelan, S. (1999) Group size, group development and group productivity. Small Group Research. 44(2)

Wheelan, S. & Hochberger, J. (1996a). Validation Studies of the Group Development Questionnaire. Small Group Research, 27, 1, 143-170.

Wheelan, S, & Hochberger, J. (1996b). Assessing Rehabilitation Teams Functional Level and Facilitating Team Development. Rehabilitation Nursing, 21, 2, 75-81.

Wheelan, S. & Johnston, F. (1996) The Role of Member Leaders in a System Containing Formal Leaders. Small Group Research, 27, 1, 33-55.

Wheelan, S., Tillin, F., & Sanford, J. (1996). School Group Effectiveness and Productivity. Research Practice, 4, 1, 11-14. The Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement. College of Education. The University of Minnesota.

Wheelan, S., Yantorno, R. E., Tilin, F. & Lisk, A. R. (1996). Engineering Education and Team Work. Paper presented at the American Society for Engineering Education. Middle Atlantic Section Reginal Conference. April 27, 1996.

Wheelan, S. (Ed.). (1996). New Frontiers in Group and Organizational Dynamics. A Special Issue of Systems Practice, 9 (1).

Wheelan, S. (1996). An Initial Exploration of the Relevance of Complexity Theory to Group Research and Practice. Systems Practice, 9 (1), 47-70.

Wheelan, S. (1996). New Frontiers in Group and Organizational Dynamics: An Introduction. Systems Practice, 9 (1), 5-6.

Wheelan, S. (1996). Effects of Gender Composition and Group Status Differences on Member Perceptions of Group Developmental Patterns, Effectiveness, and Productivity. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 34, 9/10, 665-686.

Wheelan, S., Brunner, A., Burchill, C., Craig, R., & Tilin, F. (1996) The Utility of Group Development Theory in Consulting with Small, Social Service Organizations: A Case Study. Organization Development Journal, 14 (3), 4-15.

Wheelan, S. (1997). Co-therapists and the creation of a Functional Psychotherapy Group: A Group Dynamics Perspective. Group Dynamics Theory, Research, and Practice, 1(4), 306-310.

Wheelan, S. (1997). Group Development and the Practice of Group Psychotherapy.  Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1(4), 288-293.

Wheelan, S. & Kaeser, R. M. (1997). The Influence of Task Type and Designated Leaders on Developmental Patterns in Groups. Small Group Research, 28, 1, 94-121.

Wheelan, S., Buzaglo, G., Tsumura, E. (1998). Developing Assessment Tools For Cross Cultural Group Research. Small Group Research, 29(3), 359-370.

Wheelan, S., Murphy, D., Tsumura, E., & Fried Kline, S. (1998). Member Perceptions of Internal Group Dynamics and Productivity. Small Group Research, 29(3), 371-393.

Wheelan, S. & Tilin, F.(1999). The relationship between faculty group effectiveness and school productivity. Small Group Research, 30,1, 59-81.

Buzaglo, G. & Wheelan, S.(1999). Facilitating work team effectiveness: Case studies from Central America. Small Group Research, 30,1,108-129.

Wheelan, S. (1999). An introduction to the Special Issue on Group Development.  Small Group Research, 30, 1.

Wheelan, S. & Burchill, C. (1999). Take Teamwork to New Heights. Nursing Management, 28-32.

Wheelan, S. (1999) Group size, group development and group productivity. Small Group Research. 44(2)

Wheelan, S. & Lisk, A. (2000). Cohort group effectiveness and the educational achievement of adult undergraduate students. Small Group Research, 31,6, 724-738.

Wheelan, S. Burchill, C. & Tilin, F. (2003). The link between teamwork and patients’ outcomes in intensive care units. American Journal of Critical Care, 12, 527-534.

Wheelan, S. (2003). An initial exploration of the internal dynamics of leadership teams. Consulting Psychology Journal, 55 (3), 179-188.

Wheelan, S., & Williams, T. (2003). Mapping dynamic interaction patterns in work groups. Small Group Research, 34, 443-467.

Wheelan, S. & Brewer Danganan, N. (2003). The relationship between the internal dynamics of student affairs leadership teams and campus leaders’ perceptions of the effectiveness of student affairs divisions. National Association of Student Personnel Administrators Journal, 40, 3, 93-112.

Wheelan, S., Davidson, B., & Tilin, F. (2003). Group development across time: Reality or Illusion? Small Group Research, 34, 2, 223-245.

Chang, A., Bordia, P., & Duck, J. (2003). Punctuated equilibrium and linear progression: Toward a new understanding of group development. The Academy of Management Journal, 46(1), 106-117. doi:10.2307/30040680

Wheelan, S. (2004).Workplace teams. In J. L. DeLucia-Waack, D. A. Gerrity, C. R. Kalodner, & M. T. Riva, Handbook of group work, 401-413. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Arrow, H., Poole, M. S., Bouas Henry, K., Wheelan, S., Moreland, R. (2004). Time, change, and development: The temporal perspectives on groups. Small Group Research, 35, 73-105.

Wheelan, S. & Kesselring, J. (2005). The link between faculty group development and the performance of elementary students on standardized tests. The Journal of Educational Research, 98, 323-330.

Wheelan, S. & Furbur, S. (2006). Facilitating team development: Communication, and productivity. In L.Frey, (Ed.). Facilitating group communication in context: Innovations and Applications with natural groups, Vol.2, 155-176. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Chang, A., Duck, J., & Bordia, P. (2006). Understanding the multidimensionality of group development. Small Group Research, 37(4), 327-350. doi:10.1177/104649406290564

Jacobsson, C. (2009) Att coacha grupper, i Coaching, Max Rapp Ricciardi (red.), Bonnier Ledarskapshandböcker

Jacobsson, C. & Wramsten Wilmar, M. (2009) Increasing Teacher Team Effectiveness by Evidence Based Consulting. Presented at: 14th European Congress of Work and Organizational Psychology. Santiago di Compostela, Spain.

Jacobsson, C., & Persson, O. (2011). Group development; what´s the speed limit?- Two cases of student groups. In Jacobsson, C. & Ricciardi, M. (Eds) (2011). The individual and the group – Future challenges. Proceedings from the 7th GRASP conference, University of Gothenburg, May 2010. Gothenburg

Børressen, J-E., Jacobsson, C. & Rydbo, N. (2012) Investigating the relationship between group dynamics and health in Swedish manufacturing industry – A pilot Study. Presented at the 8th GRASP conference, may 3 – 4, 2012, Bergen: NTNU

Rydbo, N. & Jacobsson, C. (2013). The relationship between group dynamics and health in Swedish manufacturing industry. Presented at: “Work Group Development: Theory, Research & Practice“. March 8 – 10, 2013. Saint Joseph’s University, Philadelphia, PA

Jacobsson, C. (2013). Group Development and health in Schools – A pilot study. (2013) Presented at: “Work Group Development: Theory, Research & Practice“. March 8 – 10, Saint Joseph’s University, Philadelphia, PA

Wheelan, S.A. & Jacobsson, C. (2014). A descriptive study of work groups in the Swedish and U.S. economy. Presented at the 9th GRASP conference, may 22-23, Linköping: Linköping University.

Jacobsson, C., Rydbo, N. &. Børressen, J-E. (2014) The Links Between Group Development and Health in Manufacturing Industry. Journal of Small Group Research, 45(4): 400-415

Ulhassan, W., Westerlund, H., Thor, J., Sandahl, C. & von Thiele Schwarz, U. (2014). Does lean implementation interact with group functioning? Journal of Health Organisation & Management, 28(2), 196

Gren, L., Torkar, R., & Feldt, R. (2015). Group maturity and agility, are they connected? – A survey study. Proceedings – 41st Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2015. 1-8. doi:10.1109/SEAA.2015.31

Jacobsson, C., Åkerlund, M,. Graci, E., Cedstrand, E. & Archer, T. (2016). Teacher team effectiveness and teachers’ wellbeing. Clinical and Experimental Psychology.2(2).

Jacobsson, C., Lidberg, J. & Archer, T. (2016). Consultants’ versus Managers’ – perceptions of a group development intervention program. Clinical and Experimental Psychology. 2(3).

Söderhjelm, T., Björklund, C., Sandahl, C., & Bolander-Laksov, K. (2016). Academic leadership: Management of groups or leadership of teams? A multiple-case study on designing and implementing a team-based development programme for academic leadership. Studies in Higher Education, , 1-16. doi:10.1080/03075079.2016.1160277

Gren, L., Torkar, R. & Feldt, R. (2017). Group development and group maturity when building agile teams: A qualitative and quantitative investigation at eight large companies. Journal of Systems and Software, 124, 104-119. doi:10.1016/j.jss.2016.11.024

Jacobsson, C. (2017). Can team development be a way to strengthen employees’ well-being? International Interdisciplinary Conference on HRM. 23-25 March, 2017. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Jacobsson, C. (2017). The Goal Matrix – A Model for Developing Shared Cognition in Teams. Clinical and Experimental Psychology.3(2)

More publications from Christian Jacobsson:
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Christian_Jacobsson2

Silberman, M. & Wheelan, S. (1980). How to Discipline Without Feeling Guilty: Assertive Relations with Children. New York, NY: E.P. Dutton.  Paperback. Champaign, IL: Research Press.

Stivers, E. & Wheelan, S. (Eds.). (1986). The Lewin Legacy: Field Theory in Current Practice. New York, NY: Springer/Verlag.

Wheelan, S. (1990). Facilitating Training Groups: A Guide to Leadership and Verbal Intervention Skills. New York, NY: Praeger.

Wheelan, S., Abt, V. & Pepitone, E. (Eds.). (1990). Advances in Field Theory.  Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Wheelan, S. (1994). Group Processes: A Developmental Perspective. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon: The Simon & Schuster Education Group.

Wheelan, S., Verdi, A., & McKeage, R. (1994). The Group Development Observation System: Origins and Applications. GDQ Associates Inc.

Wheelan, S. (1999). Creating Effective Teams: A Guide for Members and Leaders.  Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Wheelan, S. (2005). Group Processes: A Developmental Perspective (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon: The

Simon & Schuster Education Group.

Wheelan, S. (Ed.). (2005). Handbook of Group Research and Practice. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Wheelan, S. (2005). Creating Effective Teams: A Guide for Members and Leaders (2nd Ed.)  Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Wheelan, S. (2005). Faculty Groups: From Frustration to Collaboration. Newbury Park, CA: Corwin Press.